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TOEFL IBT READING PRACTICE TEST 33 SOLUTION & EXPLANATION

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Solution for toefl ibt reading practice test 33

READING PASSAGE 1

1. (B) 2. (B) 3. (C) 4. (A) 5. (C) 6. (C) 7. (B) 8. (C) 9. (C)    10.    (B)    11.    (C) 12. (A) 13. Temperature: (A), (B), (F), (G) / Aridity: (D), (E), (I)

4. Inference I (A)

Q. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 5 about animal activity during midday?

Why? (A) can be inferred from the information in lines 47-49. <*See Clue 4(A)

Why Not? (B), (D) Incorrect *~See lines 47-49/ (C) Not supported

5. Factual Information I (C)

Q. According to paragraph 6, kangaroos and cheetahs lick their paws because

Why? —See    Clue 5{C)[lines 53-55]

► Cheetahs and kangaroos, for example, lick their paws because the resulting evaporation of water dissipates heat

Why Not? (A), (B), (D) Not mentioned

6. Reference I (C)

Q. The word them in the passage refers to

Why? Cheetahs and kangaroos, for example, lick their paws because the resulting evaporation of water dissipates heat, helping them maintain comfortable body temperatures. «-See Clue 6(C)[lines 53-56]

7. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)

Q. In paragraph 7, the author illustrates the potential efficiency of adaptations to arid climates by

Why? ~See Clue 7(B)[lines 66-69]

8. Factual Information I (C)

Q. According to paragraph 8, some insects meet their water requirements by

Why? ~See Clue 8(C)[lines 73-75]

► their water requirements are fulfilled by the water content in the foods they eat.

Why Not? (A), (B), (D) Not mentioned

9. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word parched in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? dry can replace parched in this context. »See Clue 9<C)[lines 95-97]

•    parched adj. extremely dry, due to hot weather

•    dry adj. lack of water or liquid

10. Inference I (B)

Q. Based on the information in paragraph 8 and paragraph 9, what can be inferred about addax?

Why? (B) can be inferred from combining the information in lines 82-86 and lines 93-94. —See Clue 10(B)

Why Not? (A), (C) Incorrect —See lines 82-86,93-94/ (D) Not supported

11. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. Based on the information in paragraph 10, which of the following best explains the term

Why? -See    Clue    11    (C)lines

12. Insert Text | [A]

Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why?  Many species avoid the heat by seeking shelter in microclimates—areas that can be considered miniature ”climates* in a sense, for their environmental conditions differ, in terms of temperature, from the larger climate they are contained within. [A] In the desert, such microclimates may exist in the form of shaded refuges or underground retreats. For example, kangaroo rats hide away in a type of underground microclimate—deep burrows that keep them cool. [B]

► ‘such microclimates* in the given sentence refers to ‘microclimates.*

13. Schematic Table

Q. Directions: Complete the table by matching the statements below.

Select the appropriate statements from the answer choices and match them to the type of adaptation to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.

Why?

  Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
Temperature (A) Nocturnal desert species are primarily active during the night. Clue 13(A)[lines 30-32] By waiting until the sun sets to begin their periods of activity, nocturnal animals avoid the heat by coordinating their habits.
(B) In microclimates, some species avoid the general conditions of the regional climate. Clue 13(B)[lines 21-23] Many species avoid the heat by seeking shelter in microclimates—areas that can be considered miniature ‘climates*
(F) Certain species have the ability to adjust their coloration. Clue 13(F)[lines 40-41] Some animals have evolved advantageous coloration
(G) When animals pant, they increase the rate of evaporation from the respiratory tract. Clue 13(G)[lines 57-61] cheetahs … employ evaporative cooling in the form of panting, which facilitates evaporation from the respiratory system
Aridity (D) For grey kangaroos, embryonic diapause facilitates survival in desert regions. Clue 13(D)[lines 106-111] During embryonic diapause,… In this manner, the mother is able to conserve water and at the same time increase her baby’s chances of survival
(E) As they excrete biological wastes, some species expel concentrated urine. Clue 13(E)[lines 93-94] these animals discharge highly concentrated urine
(1) Desert conditions cause some species to temporarily stop breeding. Clue 13(l)[lines 102-104] Grey kangaroos also stop breeding when there are insufficient water supplies

Why Not? (C), (H) Not mentioned

1. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)

Q. In paragraph 1, why does the author mention

Why? **See Clue 1(B)[lines 7-9]

2. Sentence Simplification I (B)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? Maintaining optimal body temperatures is critical for animals in a variety of climates, // but in regions where environmental temperatures range to high extremes, // control over body temperature is particularly essential, // often making the difference between life and death.

Why Not? (A), (C), (D) Information about how maintaining optimal body temperatures is critical for desert animals is left out.

3. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word scorching in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? burning can replace scorching in this context. *See Clue 3(C)[lines 16-17]

scorching adj. extremely hot 

burning adj. on fire

KEY FOR READING PASSAGE 2

14. (C) 15. (D) 16. (C) 17. (A) 18. (D) 19. (A) 20. (B) 21. (A) 22. (B) 23. (D) 24.(D) 25. (D) 26. (B) 27. (B), (C). (D)

14. Vocabulary [C]

Q. The word mitigate in the passage is closest in meaning to14. Vocabulary I (C)

Why? relieve can replace mitigate in this context. —See Clue 14(C)[lines 3-6]

•    mitigate v. to lessen the unpleasant effects of a situation

•    relieve v. to free or lessen someone’s pain or unpleasant feelings

15. Factual Information I (D)

Q. According to paragraph 1, what is the purpose of the Millennium Environmental Assessment?

Why? —See Clue 15(D)[lines 10-15]

► The aims of this research program are to provide people—both decision-making officials and the general public—with information about the likely future consequences of current human activity that affects the ecosystem.

16. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word fundamental in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? basic can replace fundamental in this context —See Clue 16(C)]lines 30-31]

•    fundamental adj. relating to the most basic and key parts of something

•    basic adj. forming the base or most necessary part of something

17. Inference I (A)

Q. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that focusing exclusively on the marketability of a natural resource is hazardous because

Why? (A) can be inferred from the information in lines 38-40. —See Clue 17(A)

Why Not? (B), (D) Not supported / (C) Incorrect —See lines 38-42

18. Rhetorical Purpose I (D)

Q. Why does the author mention Chicago in paragraph 3?

Why? Chicago is mentioned as an example of a region that forests provided with nonmarketable but economically valuable services. —See Clue 18(D)[lines 51-54]

19. Negative Fact I (A)

Q. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as nonmarketable services provided by the ecosystem EXCEPT

Why? -See Clue 19(A)[lines 38-41]

Why Not? (B) Mentioned in lines 25-26 / (C) Mentioned in lines 45-46 / (D) Mentioned in lines 52-54

20. Inference I (B)

Q. It can be inferred from paragraph 4 that the MA believes the general public

Why? (B) can be inferred from the information in lines 55-60.    20{B)[lines    55-60]

Why Not? (A), 1C), (D) Not supported

21. Vocabulary I (A)

Q. The word epic in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? huge can replace epic in this context -*~See Clue 21(A)[lines 73-74, 75-76]

•    epic adj. surpassing the ordinary or usual, particularly in scope or size

•    huge adj. very large in size, amount, or degree

22. Sentence Simplification I (B)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.  

Why? The MA report makes it evident that humankind has arrived at a point in time // where the only way to lessen environmental problems is at an international level, // for resolving the planet’s ecological imbalance is an issue too great for single countries or individual people to tackle.

Why Not? (A) Not mentioned

(C)    Information that international cooperation is necessary is left out

(D)    Incorrect

23. Inference I (D)

Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 5 about the solution to the current pollution crisis?

Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 77-82. ^See Clue 23(D)

Why Not? (A) Incorrect / (B) Not mentioned / (C) Incorrect ^See lines 77-82

24. Reference 1 (D)

Q. The word it in the passage refers to

Why? … action to protect the environment from decisions that would exploit it. ^See Clue 24(D)[lines 93-95]

25. Vocabulary I (D)

Q. The word obligation in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? responsibility can replace obligation in this context. **See Clue 25(D)[lines 104-107]

•    obligation n. moral or legal duty and expectation of doing something

•    responsibility n. duty to be in charge of something, so that you make decisions and are accountable

26. Insert Text I [B]

Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? [A] Environmental problems have reached such epic proportions that any countermeasure will need to be on the scale of an international environmental movement. [B] There are several components to this kind of environmental movement At the base of an effective environmental movement, there must be a change in individuals’ attitudes toward preserving the ecosystem. [C]

► ‘this kind of environmental movement’ in the given sentence refers to ‘an international environmental movement.’ And the decisive clue is the repetition of the phrase ‘environmental movement’ through the three successive sentences.

27. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This ciuestion is worth 2 points.

Why? The research presented in the MA report demonstrates that it is essential to protect the planet’s ecology, even though the task will require major efforts.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Although some natural resources cannot be bought or sold, they nonetheless form critical parts of the Earth’s ecology. Clue 27(B)[lines 25-29] Although some of these assets—like erosion control and cultural heritage— are often underappreciated because they cannot be marketed for economic gain, they are nonetheless very valuable resources.
(C) Preserving the planet’s ecology has the potential to provide people with significant economic returns. Clue 27(C)[lines 65-68] ecologically preserved Canadian wetlands are worth nearly 6,000 US dollars per hectare, but only 2,500 dollars per hectare when intensively farmed
(D) An environmental movement can only succeed if it occurs at both global and individual levels. Clue 27(D)[lines 71-72] the only way to lessen environmental problems is at an international level [lines 80-82] there must be a change in individuals’ attitudes toward preserving the ecosystem

► The whole passage focuses on the value of our ecosystem and the importance of an environmental movement at the international level. And it follows that <(B) Value of natural resources — (C) Economic returns of preserving the planet’s ecology — (D) Necessity of the environmental movement on global and individual scales) **-See <Graphic Organize/> on p. 333

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 8-10, but minor / (E), (F) Not mentioned

KEY FOR READING PASSAGE 3

28. (D) 29.(C) 30. (B) 31. (B) 32. (B)  33 (D) 34. (A) 35. (B) 36.(C) 37. (A) 38. (D) 39. (A) 40. (B) 41. (B), (E), (F)

28. Factual Information  (D)

Q. According to paragraph 1, why did some people expect to find life on Venus?

Why? – See Clue 28<D)[lines 4-9]

► … its size, shape, mass, and age are similar to those of our world.

Why Not? (A), (B) Incorrect **See lines 9-11HC) Not mentioned

29. Vocabulary I (C)

Q. The word dowse in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? create can replace devise in this context. **-See Clue 29(C)[lines 16-20]

•    devise v. to invent a plan to do something

•    create v. to invent or design

30. Vocabulary I (B)

Q. The word contour in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? outlines can replace contours in this context. «-See Clue 30(B)[lines 22-27]

•    contour n. shape of the outer edges of something

•    outline n. line around the edge of something revealing its shape

31. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)

Q. In paragraph 2, the author explains the concept of radar-mapping by

Why? After introducing radar technology, the author explains the concept of radar-mapping by giving an example of radar use in the 1940s and ’50s. See Clue 31(B)[lines 20-21]

32. Reference I (B)

Q. The word they in the passage refers to

Why? Most of these vehicles made use of the same radar technology to image the planet’s surface, but they had greater access through their maneuverability than the Earth-based telescopes as they circled the planet. ^See Clue 32(B)[lines 36-40]

33. Factual Information I (D)

Q. According to paragraph 3, the advantage orbiting spacecraft had over telescopes on Earth was that they

Why? ~ See Clue 33(D)]lines 38^40]

► … they had greater access through their maneuverability than the Earth-based telescopes as they circled

34. Sentence Simplification I (A)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? Yet even though the surface of the planet Venus appears very different from that of the Earth, // in terms of structure the two are somewhat comparable, suggesting // that similar geological forces may have been responsible for shaping the outer shells of both worlds.

Why Not? (B), (D) Incorrect

(C) Information that the surfaces of Venus and Earth look different is left out.

35. Inference I (B)

Q. What can be inferred about Earth from the information in paragraph 5?

Why? (B) can be inferred from the information in lines 63-65. –See Clue 35(B)

36. Rhetorical Purpose I (C)

Q. Why does the author mention the Earth’s oceans in paragraph 6?

Why? The Earth’s oceans are mentioned in order to explain the difference between the surface of Venus and Earth by comparing them. *See Clue 36(C) [lines 79-61]

37. Vocabulary I (A)

Q. The word comprise in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? include can replace comprise in this context. **See Clue 37(A)[lines 87-88]

•    comprise v. to form part of or be contained in larger group of people or things

•    include v. to make someone or something part of a bigger group or set

38. Inference I (D)

Q. According to paragraph 1. what can be inferred about upcoming missions to Venus?

Why? (D) can be inferred from the information in lines 95-98. »See Clue 38(D)

Why Not? (A)-(C) Not supported

39. Negative Fact I (A)

Q. All of the following are mentioned in the passage as methods used to observe Venus EXCEPT

Why Not? (B) Mentioned in lines 35-36 / (C) Mentioned in line 29 / (D) Mentioned in lines 41-48

40. Insert Text I [B]

Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why Not? [A] Needless to say, the possibility of life on Venus was ruled out by these scientific endeavors. [B] In fact, the planet is one of the least hospitable in the solar system. The thick clouds that hid the surface from astronomers for so long are composed of sulfuric acid, with only trace amounts of water vapor. [C]

41. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? After years of research and the success of many high-tech projects, astronomers have finally been able to gather data about the surface of Venus.

Correct Answer Choices Clues in the passage
(B) Concrete information obtained about the harsh conditions on the surface of Venus makes it clear that there is no life on the planet. Clue 41(B)[lines 49-51] the possibility of life on Venus was ruled out by these scientific endeavors
(E) Though demonstrating many differences, the surfaces of Earth and Venus show signs of having experienced similar geologic phenomena. Clue 41(E)[lines 60-65] even though the surface of the planet Venus appears very different from that of the Earth, in terms of structure the two are somewhat comparable, suggesting that similar geological forces may have been responsible for shaping the outer shells of both worlds
(F) The vast plains and occasional mountainous uprisings of Venus’s surface resemble structural features that can also be observed on Earth. Clue 41(F)[lines 75-761 the majority of the planet is flat

[lines 78-80] Highlands account for only 5-10 percent of the surface area. This would be similar to the appearance of Earth’s surface

► The whole passage focuses on attempts to observe the surface of Venus and the results. And it follows that ((B) Harsh conditions on the surface of Venus —<» (E) Earth and Venus experience similar geologic phenomena — (F) The surface of Venus is similar to that of Earth’s) See <Graphic Organizer> on p. 339

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 28-31, but minor / (C) Not mentioned / (D) Mentioned in lines 16-18, 51-53, but minor

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