Reading 4 “The Digital Divide”
40. A The author mentions the telephone to demonstrate that even technology like the telephone is
not available to all. “Only 6 percent of the population in developing countries are connected to telephones.”
41. B The number of people who use computers and the Internet is increasing paraphrases “the
number of Internet users is growing” and most people in the world still do not have connections paraphrases “most of the world’s population does not have access to computers or the Internet.”
42. C In this passage, people refers to “residents.” Context comes from the previous reference to a
place, “some Native American reservations,” in the same sentence. Choices A, B, and D are not correct because they are not capable of being residents [living in a place].
43. D In this passage, remove is a synonym for “eliminate.” Context comes from the word “remove”
later in the same sentence.
44. B “The digital divide between the populations who have access to the Internet and information
technology tools is based on income, race, education, household type, and geographic location . . . .” Choice A is not correct because the divide is not limited to developing nations. Choice C is not correct because socioeconomic level is only one of the factors. Choice D is not correct because the divide is between those with access and without access, not between different groups with access.
45. A The author gives details about the percentages of Internet users to prove that there are differences in opportunities among social groups. Choice B is not correct because the author is presenting facts and statistics, not a persuasive argument. Choice C is not correct because no improvements are mentioned. Choice D is not correct because no explanation is provided with the facts.
46. B “… 31 percent of black households.” Choice A is not correct because 40 percent of households with one parent have access. Choice C is not correct because 32 percent of Latino households have access. Choice D is not correct because 72 percent of households with two parents have access.
47. B “Women . . . are receiving fewer than 30 percent of the bachelor’s degrees in computer and information science. The result [of receiving fewer degrees] is that women and members of the
most oppressed ethnic groups are not eligible for the jobs____” Choice A is not correct because information about admission is not included in the passage. Choice C is not correct because we do not know whether they are interested. Choice D is not correct because the jobs with the highest salaries are in computer science.
48. C “… a higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms than those [schools] with high concentrations of low-income students.” The pronoun “those” does not refer to Choices A, B, or D.
49. B In this passage, numbers is a synonym for “concentrations.” Context comes from the references in previous sentences to “percentage” and “number.”
50. C Because “schools … cannot currently afford the equipment which needs to be updated regularly every three years or so,” it must be concluded that the cost of replacing equipment is a problem. Choice A is not correct because the quality of the computers is not mentioned. Choices B and D are not correct because no judgments are made.
51. C Conclusion from evidence is the transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. . a higher percentage of the schools with more affluent students have wired classrooms … Thus, the students who are most unlikely to have access at home also do not have access in their schools____” Choices A, B, and D are not correct because they do not provide the evidence for the conclusion in the insert sentence that follows them.
52. D, B, F summarize the passage. Choice A is a detail that is not developed in the passage. Choice
C is a minor point that supports major point D. Choice E is a minor point that supports major point B.
Reading 5 “The Evolution of Birds”
53. B . birds did not fly immediately after they developed feathers paraphrases “Feathers evolved before powered flight.”
54. A In this passage, the phrase made different describes “modifications.” Context comes from the examples in the sentences that follow and from the reference to “adaptations.”
55. D “… birds are toothless, an adaptation that trims the weight of the head … Choice A is not cor
rect because the organs are fewer, not lighter. Choice B is not correct because their muscles are large and powerful, not smaller. Choice C is not correct because the head is lighter, not heavier.
56. A “Feathers are made of the protein B-keratin, which is also found in the scales of reptiles.”
Choice B is not correct because feathers are made of keratin, not compared with airfoils. Choice C is not correct because the author does not refer to the text. Choice D is not correct because the only description is the comparison with scales.
57. C “… feathers form wings into airfoils that illustrate the same principles of aerodynamics as the wings of an airplane.” Choice A is not correct because some birds flap their wings only occasionally. Choice B is not correct because swifts, not eagles and hawks, can fly 170 km/hr. Choice D is not correct because the wings are the airfoils, and they are attached to the sternum (breastbone).
58. D “Feathers, and in some species, layers of fat provide insulation that enables birds to retain their
[birds] body heat.” The pronoun “their” does not refer to Choices A, B, or C.
59. A In this passage, simple is an antonym for “elaborate.” Context comes from the references to “complex” in the previous sentence.
60. B In this passage, very important describes “essential.” Context comes from the examples of alterations in the previous two paragraphs.
61. B Because three scenarios are discussed to explain how therapods developed flight, it must be
concluded that scientists have proposed several different possibilities. Choices A, C, and D are alternative scenarios.
62. B “… unlike a present-day bird, it [Archaeopteryx^ could not take off from a standing position.” It may be inferred that Archaeopteryx had to run or glide to lift off. Choice A is not correct because it had a “long tail.” Choice C is not correct because it “retained ancestral characteristics such as teeth____” Choice D is not correct because, although the was found in Germany, the habitat is not mentioned in the passage.
63. D Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 1. Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 5, sentence 1. Choice C is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentences 1 and 2.
64. C Addition is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with previous sentences.
Several benefits of flight are explained before the insert sentence. The sentence after the insert expands on the benefit of migrating to avoid extreme climates.
65. A, C, E summarize the passage. Choice B is an example of major point C. Choice D is a minor point that refers to major point A. Choice F is an example of major point E.