Solution & Explanation for TOEFL iBT Reading Practice Test 15 ( From Barron’s TOEFL’S iBT)
Reading 1 “Resources and Industrialism in Canada”
1. B “The building of the Temiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway led to the discovery of rich silver deposits.” Choices A, C, and D are true, but they do not relate to the main point in paragraph 1, the resources in the western frontier.
2. C . Sudbury became the world’s largest nickel producer.” Choice A is not correct because it is not mentioned directly in the paragraph. Choice B is not correct because Sudbury was a supplier, not a market for metals. Choice D is not correct because Sudbury is in Ontario, not in the Klondike.
3. D In this passage, lasting is a synonym for “enduring.”
4. B “… the federal government created the Yukon Territory… in an effort to ward off the prospect of annexation to Alaska.” Choice A is not correct because fortune-seekers were flocking there already. Choice C is not correct because the tales of lawlessness were told in popular fiction, but no effort to establish law and order was mentioned. Choice D is not correct because the legality of the mining claims was not mentioned.
5. D In this passage, formerly is a synonym for “previously.” Context comes from the reference to “unsettled” for an area that was increasing in population.
6. A “.. . the tales [of the Klondike strike] . . . were immortalized through … the poetic verses of Robert W. Service.” Choices B and C may have been true, but they were not mentioned in connection with the poetry of Robert Service. Choice D is not correct because the creation of the Yukon Territory, not the poetry, prevented the Klondike’s annexation to Alaska.
7. B Choice A is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 2. Choice C is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 5. Choice D is mentioned in paragraph 3, sentence 4.
8. D In this passage. Moreover is a synonym for “Furthermore.” Context comes from the addition of another way that the forest and water resources were exploited.
9. C Federal taxes paraphrases “the high tariff policies” and cheaper imported goods paraphrases “lower-priced foreign manufactured goods.” . . . protecting domestic industries paraphrases “protecting existing industries” and supporting new businesses paraphrases “encouraging the creation of new enterprises.”
10. C “To climb the tariff wall, large American industrial firms opened branches in Canada, and the governments of Ontario and Quebec aggressively urged them [American industrial firms] on by offering bonuses, subsidies, and guarantees to locate new plants.” The pronoun “them” does not refer to Choices A, B, or D.
11. A “… the governments of Ontario and Quebec… [offered] bonuses, subsidies, and guarantees to locate new plants within their borders.” Choice B is true, but it is not the reason why British and American businesses opened affiliates. Choice C is not correct because the consumers in western Canada were eager to buy goods from eastern and central Canada, not from abroad. Choice D is not correct because British investors contributed to the construction of urban infrastructure.
12. C Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. The connection is “Railway construction” and “discoveries of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc” to “The building of the … Railway” and “rich silver deposits.”
13. C, E, F summarize the passage. Choices A and B are minor points that support major point C.
Choice D is a minor point that supports major point E.
Reading 2 “Looking at Theatre History”
14. C . the buildings in later periods became sources of stone for other projects and what remains is usually broken and scattered.” Choice A is not correct because other theatres have been identified and many of them have been excavated. Choice B is not correct because the archeologists were not the ones who broke the stones. Choice D is not correct because concrete was not mentioned as construction material during early periods. The word “concrete” in the passage means “true” or “verifiable” in reference to “evidence.”
15. B “… many pieces are irrevocably lost.” Choice A is not correct because drawings are conjectural. Choice C is not correct because the number of skenes that archeologists have excavated is not specified. Choice D is not correct because excavations did not begin until the late 1800s, not the early 1800s.
16. B In this passage, important is a synonym for “primary.” Context comes from the phrase, “most concrete evidence.”
17. D In this passage, exact is a synonym for “precise.” Context comes from the contrast with the word “conjectural” in the same sentence.
18. A . the myths on which dramatists drew were known to everyone, including vase painters, who might well depict the same subjects as dramatists.” Choice B is not correct because reproductions were not mentioned. Choice C is not correct because the qualifications of scholars were not discussed. Choice D is not correct because thousands of vases have survived.
19. B In this passage, debated is a synonym for “controversial.” Context comes from the phrases “easy to misinterpret” and “questionable assumption” in later sentences.
20. D Because the author refers to the archeological evidence in vase paintings as “controversial,” it must be concluded that there is disagreement among scholars. Choice A is not correct because the oldest surviving manuscripts date from 1500 years after they were first performed. Choice B is not correct because they are easy to misinterpret. Choice C is not correct because the author does not mention the condition of the vases.
21. B “… each time a text was copied, there were new possibilities for errors.” Choice A is not correct because the problem of sources was identified for archeological findings, not written evidence. Choices C and D are not mentioned as problems for written evidence.
22. D “… these characters [women] often seem victims of their own powerlessness.” Choice A is not correct because many plays featured strong female characters. Choice B is not correct because some critics have seen these plays [with women as victims] as rationalizations by the male-dominated culture and other critics have seen them as an attempt to examine this aspect of the culture. Choice C is not correct because plays featured numerous choruses of women.
23. B “… the majority of written references to Greek theatre date from several hundred years after the events they report. The writers seldom mention their sources of evidence, and thus we do not know what credence to give them [the sources].” The pronoun “them” does not refer to Choices A, C, or D.
24. A “… historical treatment of Greek theatre is something like assembling a jigsaw puzzle of which many pieces are missing.” The reference to “missing pieces” is an analogy to the partial evidence for Greek theatre. Choice B is not correct because no comparison is made between written references and the paintings in paragraph 4. Choice C is not correct because the author does not use words and phrases that suggest justification. Choice D is not correct because the last sentence is a summary of the reading passage, not an opening sentence for a new topic.
25. C Vocabulary reference and contrast are two transitional devices that connect the previous and following sentences to the insert sentence. The connection is “theatres … have been excavated” in the previous sentence and These excavations” in the insert sentence as well as the contrast with “Nevertheless, they” [the theatres or excavations of theatres] in the following sentence.
26. B, D, C summarize the passage. Choice A is a minor point that supports major point D. Choice E is a minor point that supports major point C. Choice F is reasonable, but it is not mentioned in the passage.
Reading 3 “Geothermal Energy”
27. A The author mentions geothermal power in 1904 in Italy, and then lists a number of countries worldwide that are using geothermal energy. Choice B is not correct because only successful production is mentioned. Choices C and D are discussed later in the passage.
28. D “… at the global level, geothermal energy supplies less than 0.15% of the total energy supply.”
Choice A is not correct because geothermal energy was used as early as 1904. Choice B is not correct because Russia, Iceland, Mexico, and the United States are in the Northern Hemisphere. Choice C is not correct because several advantages of using geothermal power are noted, but the comparative cost was not mentioned.
29. C In this passage nearly is a synonym for “approaching.” Context comes from the number after the word.
30. B “Some 40 million people today receive their electricity from geothermal energy at a cost com petitive with that [the cost] of other energy sources.” The pronoun “that” does not refer to Choices A, C, or D.
31. D “… considered a nonrenewable energy source when rates of extraction are greater than rates
of natural replenishment.” Choices A, B, and C are true, but they do not explain the term “nonrenewable.”
32. A High heat is the source of most of the geothermal energy paraphrases “… most geothermal
energy production involves the tapping of high heat sources,” and low heat groundwater is also used sometimes paraphrases “people are also using the low-temperature geothermal energy of groundwater in some applications.”
33. B “… areas of high heat flow are associated with plate tectonic boundaries.” Choice A is not correct because geothermal heat flow is very low compared with solar heat. Choice C is not correct because, in some areas, heat flow is sufficiently high. Choice D is not correct because geothermal energy is very practical along plate boundaries.
34. A In this passage, large is a synonym for “considerable” in reference to “thermal pollution.” Context comes from the contrast with the phrase “atmospheric pollutants” in the previous sentence.
35. B “… geothermal energy does not produce the atmospheric pollutants associated with burning fossil fuels.” Choice A is not correct because the pollution caused by geothermal energy was introduced before the discussion on atmospheric pollution. Choice C is not correct because environmental problems caused by geothermal energy are mentioned. Choice D is not correct because the author points out the problem of pollution, but does not suggest that the use of raw materials and chemicals be discontinued.
36. A Choice B is mentioned in paragraph 6, sentence 4. Choices C and D are mentioned in paragraph 6, sentences 5 and 6.
37. C “… known geothermal resources … could produce … 10% of the electricity … for the western states___ Geohydrothermal resources not yet discovered could … provide … [the] equivalent [of] the electricity produced from water power today.” Choice A is not correct because the author points out the disadvantages but argues in favor of using geothermal energy. Choice B is not correct because the author does not mention exploration as a prerequisite to further production. Choice D is not correct because the author cites the potential for geothermal energy to equal the production of water power, not to replace water power.
38. C Vocabulary reference is a transitional device that connects the insert sentence with the previous sentence. “One such region” is a phrase in the insert sentence that refers to “Oceanic ridge systems” in the previous sentence.
39. B, D, E summarize the passage. Choice A is true, but it is a minor point that provides an example for major point B. Choice C is true, but it refers to one example of cultural values developed in major point E. Choice F is true, but it is a detail that provides support for the environmental problems mentioned in major point E.