27. Rhetorical Purpose I (A)
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Q. Why does the author mention Latin words in paragraph 1?
Why? The term Latin words is mentioned in order to show that ‘circadian* is of Latin origin. ■•’See Clue 27(A)[lines 1-4]
28. Factual Information | (A)
Q. According to paragraph 2, what is convergent evolution?
Why? *rSee Clue 28(A)]lines 24-27]
► … convergent evolution—the process of unrelated species developing similar adaptations in response to similar pressures in their environments.
29. Reference I (B)
Q. The word their in the passage refers to
Why? … convergent evolution—the process of unrelated species developing similar adaptations in response to similar pressures in their environments. <*See Clue 29(B)[lines 24-27]
30. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word standpoint in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? perspective can replace standpoint in this context.
• standpoint n. particular way of thinking about something
• perspective n. way of thinking about something that is often influenced by one’s experiences or environment
31. Sentence Simplification I (B)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? In nature, the evolution of circadian rhythms has contributed to species’ survival, // as these clocks prepare organisms for cyclical events in their environment // and therefore help them to anticipate the availability of food and light, the risk of predators, and the best conditions for survival.
Why Not? (A), (C) Information that the evolution of circadian rhythms has contributed to species’ survival is left out.
(D) Not mentioned
32. Negative Fact I (D)
Q. According to the passage, all of the following demonstrate evolutionary advantages of circadian rhythms EXCEPT
|Incorrect Answer Choices||Mentioned in the passage|
|(A) Insects that emerge from pupal cases in the early morning||[lines 40-41] insects to come out of their pupal cases near dawn|
|(B) species that are active while their natural enemies are inactive||[lines 36-37] anticipate the availability of food and light, the risk of predators|
|(C) forager bees that search for food on a rhythmic schedule||[lines 60-62] As foragers, bees search for food on a rhythmic schedule guided by circadian rhythms|
33. Factual Information I (D)
Q. According to paragraph 4, why is it important that nurse bees lack circadian rhythms?
Why? ~See Clue 33(D)[lines 51-571
► … it is advantageous for non-forager bees—like nurse bees, for example, which spend their time working within the hive, performing caregiving tasks that require constant attention—to lack circadian rhythms and maintain their duties twenty-four hours a day.
Why Not? (A)-(C) Not mentioned
34. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word coordination in the passage is closest in meaning to
b Why? organization can replace coordination in this context. ••See Clue 34(B)[lines 46-49]
• coordination n. harmonious adjustment or interaction of parts so that they function well
• organization n. act or process of organizing or arranging
35. Inference I (C)
Q. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 6 about the short-term effect of a completely dark environment on circadian rhythms?
Why? (C) can be inferred from the information in lines 95-97. 3See Clue 35(C)
Why Not? (A), (B), (D) Incorrect –See lines 95-97
36. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word eliminated in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? removed can replace eliminated in this context 3See Clue 36(A)[lines 89-94]
• eliminate v. to completely do away with something
• remove v. to get rid of something
37. Inference I (B)
Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 7 about the relationship between circadian rhythms and health?
Why? (B) can be inferred from the information in lines 102-105. See Clue 37(B) m Why Not? (A) Not supported / (C) Incorrect 3-See lines 102-105/ (D) Not supported (the passage says asynchronous circadian rhythms cause sleep disorders and diabetes, but whether the converse is true or not is not mentioned.)
38. Insert Text [B]
Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? [A] The SCN uses this information to regulate hormones, body temperature, alertness, and sleep patterns. [B] All of these rhythmic biological functions depend on the SCN to guide the body through its daily cycles. Body temperature is lowest during sleep and may range as much as two degrees Fahrenheit over the course of a day. [C]
► ‘these rhythmic biological functions’ in the given sentence refers to ‘to regulate hormones, body temperature, alertness, and sleep patterns.”
39. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Why? Circadian rhythms are universal, beneficial, and powerful influences on daily life on Earth.
|Correct Answer Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(B) From bacteria to humans, dissimilar species across the planet have evolved circadian rhythms that synchronize them with the Earth’s twenty-four-hour cycle.||Clue 39(B)[lines 15-19] Because it is advantageous for organisms to operate on a twenty-four-hour cycle that mimics the rotational period of the Earth, diverse species have evolved internal mechanisms that maintain circadian rhythms.|
|(D) Maintaining social order, increasing species’ chances of survival, and preparing people for daily routines, circadian rhythms are advantageous in many respects.||
Clue 39(D)[lines 32-35] the evolution of circadian rhythms has contributed to species’ survival, as these clocks prepare organisms for cyclical events in their environment
[lines 47-48] circadian rhythms are essential for the maintenance of social order
[lines 83-85] All of these aspects of human life are to some degree governed by circadian rhythms.
|(E) Circadian rhythms use light to synchronize themselves with the Earth’s cycle, but they are capable of continuing even without any hints from the external environment.||Clue 39(E)[lines 55-66] circadian rhythms synchronize the body with the cycle of day and night [lines 95-97] circadian rhythms persist, even when all temporal hints are removed from an individual’s environment|
► The whole passage focuses on the characteristics and functions of circadian rhythms. And it follows that <(B) Circadian rhythm as a result of convergent evolution — (D) Advantages of circadian rhythms — (E) Persistence of circadian rhythms) «-See on p. 375 mm Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 1-4, but minor / (C) Mentioned in lines 73-75, but minor / (F) Mentioned in lines 98-105, but minor