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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 04 Solution & Explanation

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TOEFL IBT Reading Practice Test 04 Solution & Explanation

KEY

14. (B) 15. (D) 16. (B) 17. (A) 18. (D) 19. (B) 20. (B) 21. (C) 22. (B) 23. (D) 24.0 25. (B), (C), (F)

14. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word external in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? independent can replace external in this context. See Clue 14(B)[lines 6-12]

external adj. relating to the outside of something

independent adj. existing on its own

15. Factual Information | (D)

Q. According to paragraph 1, what is pollination?

Why? **See Clue 15(D)[lines 4-6]

► This process is called pollination, a reference to the pollen (the male sex cell) that is carried to the carpel.

16. Sentence Simplification | (B)

Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Why? Furthermore, because all the plants in a single-crop field bloom at the same time, dense concentrations of pollinators are needed, // but only for a short amount of time, // while, during the rest of the year, // the field does not offer enough food to support these natural pollinators.

Why Not? (A) Information about when the field does not offer enough food to natural pollinators is left out.

(C) Not mentioned

(D) Incorrect

17. Factual Information | (A)

Q. According to paragraph 4, ‘managed pollinators’ are

Why? ~See Clue 17(A)[lines 54-57]

► ‘Managed pollinators’ is a term ascribed to bees that are cultivated for the specific purpose of agricultural pollination.

Why Not? (B), (C) Not mentioned / (D) Incorrect See lines 57-59

18. Rhetorical Purpose | (D)

Q. In paragraph 5, why does the author mention

Why? •rSee Clue 18(D)[lines 69-75]

19. Vocabulary | (B)

Q. The word susceptible in the passage is closest in meaning to

Why? vulnerable can replace susceptible in this context. **~See Clue 19(B)[lines 77-81]

susceptible adj. likely to suffer from a particular problem or be affected with a disease

vulnerable adj. liable to be hurt or damaged

20. Negative Fad | (B)

Q. The passage identifies all of the following as threats to populations of natural pollinators EXCEPT

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 43-46 / (C) Mentioned in lines 82-85 / (D) Mentioned in lines 79-82

21. Vocabulary | (Cl

Q. The word cling in the passage is closest in meaning to

mm Why? stick can replace cling in this context. See Clue 21(C)[lines 98-99]

cling v. to stick to something

stick v. to attach to something using a substance, or being attached to a surface

22. Reference | (B)

Q. The word them in the passage refers to

Why? They introduced an electrostatic charge to test plants and then dusted charged pollen grains over them. ~See Clue 22(B)[lines 101-103]

23. Factual Information | (D)

Q. According to paragraph 6, what is the function of a honeybee’s electrostatic charge?

Why? **-See Clue 23(D)]lines 97-99]

► … pollinating insects like bees have an electrostatic charge that causes pollen to cling to their bodies.

Why Not? (A), (B) Not mentioned / (C) Incorrect «-See lines 101-103

24. Insert Text | [C]

Q. Look at the four squares [|] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Why? [A] In the United States agricultural industry, ninety different crops rely on honeybees for pollination, but the crop requiring the most bees is the California almond. [B] In total, this industry uses one million hives—almost half the U.S. population of managed honeybees. [C] Another crop that requires require a number of honeybees large amounts of honeybees is the Maine blueberry, which uses 50,000 hives yearly for the purpose of pollination. Managed pollinators like honeybees are an important alternative to natural pollination, but the main drawback is that managed honeybee populations are susceptible to the same factors—such as harmful pesticides and insect diseases—that have reduced natural pollinator populations. [D]

► ‘this industry’ refers to ‘the California almond.

25. Prose Summary

Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Why? Pollination takes place when pollen is carried from one part of a plant to another, and this process has occurred naturally for thousands of years.

 

Correct Answer Choices ; Clues in the passage
(B) Modem human practices, such as creating single-crop fields, have led to the failure of natural pollination in many cases. Clue 25(B)[lines 27-33] However, in modern U.S. food production, this method (natural pollination) alone is no longer sufficient to fertilize all the plants involved. This is because current agricultural practices often encourage the seeding of large fields with a single crop, thus reducing the diversity of the land.
(C) Farmers throughout the United States employ large concentrations of honeybees to pollinate their fields, a process known as managed pollination. Clue 25(C)[lines 54-57] “Managed pollinators” is a term ascribed to bees that are cultivated for the specific purpose of agricultural pollination.

[lines 66-69] Fruit and vegetable growers all over the United States contract with beekeepers, hiring the services of honeybees to pollinate their fields.

(F) Artificial pollination methods such as electrostatic pollination offer an alternative to the use of insects that are vulnerable to diseases and environmental changes. Clue 25(F)[lines 78-81] managed honeybee populations are susceptible to the same factors— such as harmful pesticides and insect diseases [lines 91-96] This method (artificial pollination) accomplishes pollination through artificial techniques, eliminating the need for natural or managed pollinators like honeybees. One such technique currently in use is called electrostatic pollination.

► The whole passage focuses on the three pollination methods and their advantages and disadvantages. And it follows that <{B) Problems in natural pollination — (C) Managed pollination, an alternative to natural pollination — (F) A new alternative, artificial pollination) See on p.297 

Why Not? (A) Mentioned in lines 14-16, but minor / (D) Incorrect ~See lines 86-89/(E) Incorrect ~See lines 101-103

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