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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 Solution & Transcripts

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TOEFL IBT Listening Practice Test 28 Solution & Transcripts

TRACK 24 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Why does the professor say this:

Professor

If you change a word, the others will usually bring you in line. They’ll say “That’s not how you sing it,” right?

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TRACK 25 TRANSCRIPT

Note: The actual lecture contains color images. The colors from one image are discussed by the professor. You do not need to see the colors to understand the lecture or to answer the questions. .           ‘

Narrator

Listen to part of a lecture in an astronomy class.

Professor

Last week, we covered some arguments against going back to the Moon. But there are compelling reasons in favor of another Moon landing, too, um, not the least of which is trying to pinpoint the Moon’s age. We could do this, in theory, by studying an enormous impact crater known as the South Pole-Aitken Basin. Ah, it’s located in the Moon’s south polar region. But, since it’s on the far side of the Moon, it can be seen only from space. Here’s an image of… we’ll call it the SPA Basin.

This color-coded image of the SPA Basin—ahh, those aren’t its actual colors, obviously—uh, this image is from the mid-nineties, from an American spacecraft called Clementine. Um, unlike earlier lunar missions, Clementine didn’t orbit only around the Moon’s equator. Its orbits enabled it to send back data to create this topographical map of… well, the gray-and-white area toward the bottom is the South Pole. The purples and blues in the middle correspond to low elevations—the SPA Basin itself. Uh, the oranges and reds around it are higher elevations. The Basin measures an amazing 2,500 kilometers in diameter, and its average depth is 12 kilometers. That makes it the biggest known crater in our solar system. And it may well be the oldest.

Y’know, planetary researchers love studying deep craters to learn about the impacts that created them, um, how they redistributed pieces of the planet’s crust. And, in this case, we especially wanr to know if any the mantle, the layer beneath the crust, was exposed by the impact. Not everyone agrees, but some experts are convinved that whatever created the SPA Basin did penetrate the moon’s mantle. And we need to find out, because much more than the crust, the mantle contains information about a planet’s or moon’s total composition. And that’s key to understanding planet formation. Um, Diane?

Female student

So the only way to know the Basin’s age is to study its rocks directly?

Professor

Well, from radio survey data, we know that the Basin contains lots of smaller craters.So it must be really old—around 4 billion years, give or take a few hundred million years. But that’s not very precise. If we had rock samples to study, we’d know whether these small craters were formed by impacts during the final stages of planetary formation, or if they resulted from later meteor showers.

Female student

But if we know around how old the Basin is, I’m not sure that’s reason enough to go to the Moon again.

Professor

Oh, but such crude estimates … mmm, we can do better than that! Besides, there’s other things worth investigating. Like, is there water ice on the Moon? Clementine’s data indicated that the wall of a south polar crater was more reflective than expected. So some experts think there’s probably ice there. Also, data from a later mission indicate significant concentrations of hydrogen, and by inference, water, less than a meter underground at both poles.

Male student

If there’s water, how’d it get there? Underground rivers?

Professor

We think meteors that crashed into the Moon, or tails of passing comets, may have introduced water molecules. Any water molecules that found their way to the floors of craters near the Moon’s poles, that water would be perpetually frozen because the floors of those craters are always in shadow. Uh, furthermore, If the water Ice was mixed in with rock and dust, it’d be protected from evaporation.

Female student

So, are you saying there might be primitive life on the Moon.

Uh, that  not my point at all! Um. OK, say there iswater ice on the Moon That would be of very practical value for a future Moon base for astronauts. Uh, water ice could be melted and purified for drinking. It could also be broken down into its component parts—oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen could be used to breathe. And hydrogen could be turned into fuel, rocket fuel. So, water ice could enable the crea ,on of a self- sustaining Moon base someday, a mining camp, perhaps, or, uh, a departure point for further space exploration.

But hauling tons of equipment to the Moon to make fuel and build a life-support system for a Moon base … wouldn’t that be too expensive?

Professor

A permanent base, uh, may be a ways off, but we shouldn’t have to wait: for that.  The dust at the bottom of the SPA Basin really does have a fascinating story to te . Wh wouldn’t give for a few samples of it!

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TRACK 27 TRANSCRIPT

Narrator

Listen to a conversation between a student and a professor.

Student

Hi. I was wondering if could talk with you about the assignment in the Film Theory class?

Professor

Of course, Jill.

Student

It seems that pretty much everyone else in the class gets what they’re supposed to be doing, but I’m not so sure.

Professor

Well, the class is for students who are really serious about film. You must have taken film courses before?

Student

Yeah, in high school, Film Appreciation.

Professor

Hmm, I wouldn’t think that’d be enough. Did you concentrate mainly on form, or content?

Student

Oh, definitely content. We’d watch, say, Lord of the Flies, and then discuss it.

Professor

Oh, thdt approach … treating film as literature, ignoring what makes it unique … Student

I liked it, though …

Professor

Sure, but that kind of class … well, I’m not surprised you’re feeling a little lost. Y’know, we have two introductory courses that are supposed to be taken before you get to my course—one in film art, techniques… technical stuff… and another in film history. So students in the class you’re in should be pretty far along in film studies. In fact, usually the system blocks anyone trying to sign up for a class they shouldn’t be taking, who hasn’t taken the courses you’re required to do first, as prerequisites.

Student

Well, I did have a problem with that, but I discussed it with one of your office staff and she gave me permission.

Professor

Of course. No matter how many times I tell them, they just keep on … Well, for your own good. I’d really suggest dropping back and starting at the usual place …

Student

Yes, but… I’ve already been in this class for four weeks! I’d hate to just drop it now, especially since I find it so different, so interesting.

Professor

I guess so—frankly, I can’t believe you’ve lasted this long! These are pretty in-depth theories we’ve been discussing, and you’ve been doing OK so far, I guess. But, still, the program’s been designed to progress through certain stages. Like any other professional training, we build on previous knowledge.

Student

Then maybe you could recommend some extra reading I can do, to catch up?

Professor

Well, are you intending to study film, as your main concentration?

Student

No. No, I—I’m just interested; I’m actually in marketing, but there seems to be a connection

Professor

Oh, well, in that case … if you’re taking the course just out of interest… I mean, I’d still highly recommend signing up for the introductory courses at some point. But in the meantime, there’s no harm, I guess, in trying to keep up with this class. The interest is clearly there. Uh, instead of any extra reading just now, though, you could view some of the old introductory lectures—we have ’em on video—that’d give you a better handle on the subject. It’s still a pretty tall order, and we’ll be moving right along, so you’ll really need to stay on top of it.

Student

OK, I’ve been warned. Now, could I tell you about my idea for the assignment…?

  

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