1. Sentence Simplification I (B)
Q. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
Why? The Hudson River School, the first American art movement considered a genuine school of art, originated // at the beginning of the nineteenth century, // as American painters sought to establish for themselves a distinct style—one not wholly defined by the traditions they had inherited from European art.
Why Not? (A) Not mentioned
(C) Information that the Hudson River School is distinct from European art is left out
2. Vocabulary I (A)
Q. The word situated in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? positioned can replace situated in this context. See Clue 2(A)[lines 19-21]
• situate v. to put in a specific place or position
• position v. to put in a particular or appropriate position; place
3. Factual Information I (A)
Q. According to paragraph 2, the Hudson River School was part of which of the following?
Why? See Clue 3(A)[lines 19-23]
Why Not? (B), (D) Incorrect / (C) Not mentioned
4. Rhetorical Purpose I (B)
Q. Why does the author include a quote by Ralph Waldo Emerson in paragraph 2?
Why? A quote by Ralph Waldo Emerson is included in order to show that the Hudson River School and transcendentalism shared their goals – the pursuit of their nation’s individuality. *See Clue 4(B)[lines 29-31, 40-43]
5. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The word minute in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? tiny can replace minute in this context ~See Clue 5(B)[lines 57-60]
• minute adj. extremely small as in size, amount, extent, or degree
tiny adj. very small
6. Inference I (B)
Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about landscapes painted in the style of the Hudson River School?
Why? (B) can be inferred from the information in lines 57-65. See Clue 6(B)
Why Not? (A), (C) Incorrect «-See lines 57-65/ (D) Not supported
7. Vocabulary I (B)
Q. The phrase focal point in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? center of attention can replace focal point in this context ^See Clue 7(B)[lines 74-78]
• focal point something that attracts all the attention
• center of attention something or someone that is the principal point of focus
8. Reference I (B)
Q. The word they in the passage refers to
Why? Cole began sketching the local landscape, creating large paintings based on his drawings and later displaying them in New York City, where they caught the attention of many Americans. ~See Clue 8(B)[lines 80-84]
9. Vocabulary I (C)
Q. The word tremendous in the passage is closest in meaning to
Why? immense can replace tremendous in this context. **See Clue 9(C)[lines 90-92]
• tremendous adj. extremely large in amount, extent, or degree; enormous
• immense adj. unusually great in size, amount, degree or extent
10. Inference I (C)
Q. What can be inferred from paragraph 5 about Hudson River School paintings that are currently displayed in museums?
Why? (C) can be inferred from the information in lines 98-102. **See Clue 10(C)
Why Not? (A), (B), (D) Not supported
11. Insert Text [B]
Q. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Why? [A] The Hudson River Valley became the focal point for the artistic movement after Thomas Cole, who is considered the founder of the Hudson River School, moved into the Catskiil Mountains of New York—a picturesque region that awed him with its natural beauty. [B] This particular landscape inspired the beginning of an entire art movement based on such images. Cole began sketching the local landscape, creating large paintings based on his drawings and later displaying them in New York City, where they caught the attention of many Americans. [C]
► ‘This particular landscape’ in the given sentence refers to ‘the Catskiil Mountains.’
12. Prose Summary
Q. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Why? The Hudson River School was very much the product of a developing nation that was deeply interested in the creation of a national identity.
|Correct Answers Choices||Clues in the passage|
|(A) Hudson River School artists turned to the American landscape and to the transcendentalist movement for inspiration and began to represent and define their new nation.||Clue 12(A)[lines 8-12] artists of the Hudson River School… found inspiration in the North American landscape
[lines 29-35] Transcendentalism … argued for the invention of a national identity and a departure from European conventions. The writings of transcendentalist authors fueled the creative aspirations of the Hudson River School artists
|(C) The goals of Hudson River School artists were to separate themselves from European traditions and to integrate their religious beliefs into the United States’ emerging culture.||Clue 12(C)[lines 4-7] American painters sought to establish for themselves a distinct style—one not wholly defined by the traditions they had inherited from European art.
[lines 71-73] the Hudson River School integrated religious beliefs into their definition of a national identity.
|(D) The Hudson River School was supported by an audience that craved a sense of identity, but contemporary audiences have either rejected or reinterpreted the movement’s principal messages.||Clue 12(D)[lines 84-87] People were interested in these glorified images of their country, as it provided them with a sense of ownership and identity.
[lines 93-95] The new generation of Americans rejected the moral overtones present in the Hudson River School paintings
[lines 102-105] the Hudson River School paintings are gaining modern relevance, as their overt nationalistic and religious sentiments are reinterpreted